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In one of my classes at school I had to study Safety. I had to produce leaflets on the following. •Electricity safety •Home Safety •First Aid •Water Safety
While I was learning about these topics I learnt things I didn't already know, so I suggest you read this op carefully as it could one day save your life or the life of someone you know, you can never be too safe and however small or unimportant some of these tips may be it pays to be safe than sorry.
Treatment of a stable ankle sprain (i.e. there is no complete tear or avulsion) is the R.I.C.E method. The following is an explanation of the R.I.C.E method. •Rest: The first 24-48 hours after the injury is considered the critical period and activities need to be kept to a minimum. Gradually try to put as much weight on the injured leg as is tolerable and discontinue crutch use when you can walk with minimal to no pain or limp. •Ice: For the first 48 hours after the injury put an ice-pack on the sprain and elevate the leg for 20 minutes every 3 to 4 hours. Do NOT leave the ice pack on for any more than 20 minutes as this can cause tissue damage. •Compression Use compression when elevating. With ankle at a 90 degree angle wrap the ankle from the toes all the way up to the beginning of the calf, overlapping the bandages as you go. The bandages should be snug, but not cutting off the circulation to the foot and ankle. So, if you foot becomes cold, blue or falls asleep re-wrap! •Elevate Keep your ankle higher than your heart as often as possible. Elevate your leg at night by placing books under the foot of your mattress and take care to stand up slowly in the morning.
Cuts And Grazes
Clean grazes gently under running water. After removing as much dirt and grit as possible, leave the wound open for the air to speed up the healing process. Small cuts should also be cleaned under running water. If the wound is bleeding freely, apply direct pressure with clean gauze or a clean handkerchief for at least 5 minutes. When the bleeding has stopped, cover the wound with a clean dressing or a waterproof plaster. If the cut is deep, dirty or ragged, seek medical attention, as a tetanus shot may be necessary.
Stay calm; in doing so you will help keep the person suffering from the break stay calm and comfortable. Next call 999 or get to the A&E. If you are out of reach (camping ect) and cannot get to help, or are instructed by a trained professional only then should you begin the following steps: If you think the person may have injured their head, neck or back DO NOT move them. Try not to move the broken limb as this may cause more damage and pain.
If you can’t reach help or have been told to administer first aid then follow these steps: •Make the person as comfortable as possible before immobilising the injured area •To keep the area from moving you have to make a splint. This works with leg and arm breaks where the arm is not bent. This can be done using a variety of materials such as boards, rolled newspapers, sticks, an umbrella, rolled blankets ect. Place the item around the injury and gently secure it with a rope, strips of cloth, a tie, whatever you have available. •If the above materials are unavailable, and the injury involves limbs, you may tape or tie the injured leg to the uninjured one, tape the uninjured arm to the chest, or to the side of the body (surround the limb with padding first) depending upon whether the elbow is bent. •After you have wrapped and splinted the limb, check for a pulse. If you cannot find one then this means the bonds are too tight and must be loosened. Because fractures cause swelling you should check this often to make sure the person remains comfortable. Other signs that the splint is too tight are numbness, tingling, or a blue tint to the skin at the sight of the break. •If the person has broken their arm and the arm is bent at the elbow, then take a cloth and fold it into a triangle. Then gently slip the widest part under the arm and tie the two ends around the neck, forming a makeshift sling. You want the arm to be resting at a 90-degree angle. •To keep the swelling and pain down, apply an ice pack. •Unless the person is bleeding, aspirin, ibuprofen, or another pain reliever may be used
In most cases the common nosebleed is easy to stop, and no medical help is needed. •Use a clean cloth, tissue or sterile gauze, pinch the nose together at the nostrils and firmly apply pressure towards the face. Hold like this for at least 8 minutes, or until the nose stops bleeding •Have the person lean forward slightly or sit up straight. DO NOT let the person lean back, or blood may flow into the windpipe, keep the head above the heart, or in other words, don’t let the person lie down. If they must lie down keep their head elevated at a 45-degree angle. •Apply crushed ice in a bag or cloth to the nose and cheeks. Make sure ice is in a bag or cloth because direct application may cause frostbite.
If someone faints you need to ask yourself the following questions. Was the person injured when the fell? Is the person showing any signs of shock? Has the person had a recent head injury? Have they fainted recently? Are they pregnant? Are they breathing correctly/normally? Do they have a history of heart disease? Is the person properly fed and hydrated? •Lay the person on their back with their feet elevated above their heart, about 8-12 inches if possible •Loosen any tight clothing and jewellery, especially around their head and neck •Watch their airways, are they breathing correctly? If they stop breathing then begin to administer CPR. If breathing stops then the situation becomes more serious and you should try to get medical help as soon as possible •Sometimes when people loose consciousness they vomit, you may want to turn the person onto their side in case this happens •If you suspect a head, neck, or spinal injury then get medical help as soon as possible and do not move the person unless absolutely necessary •Do not try to give the person anything to eat and drink •If the person does not regain consciousness within 2 minutes then call 999 or get emergency medical help
First Degree Most first-degree burns are superficial and can be cared for at home without the help of a medical professional. These burns are much like typical sunburns and are cared for in a similar way. You should immerse the burn in cool water (do not use ice), blot it gently and then cover with a dry, clean, non-stick pad. These burns usually leave the skin red and mildly swollen. The skin sensations are intact and the burn is painful to the touch. Most average sunburns are characterised as first-degree burns.
Second Degree Second-degree burns are more serious and should be seen by a medial professional. If the burn seems very severe then report to an emergency room. Although second-degree burns often look like first-degree burns, the damage goes deeper. With these burns the pain is more intense and blistering may occur. These burns may also be wet, or weeping and may have a shiny surface. It is advised that these burns should not be touched or covered.
Third Degree These burns are the most serious. Third-degree burns are very deep and the burn often appears white, deep red, or black because of skin death. These burns are often without sensation because nerve endings have been damaged. It is important that these burns are not touched, or covered unless absolutely necessary. Any contact with the burned skin can cause more damage and heighten the chance of infection. If the face is affected sit the victim up and watch for breathing difficulties, until medical help is received. If arms and legs are affected, keep them elevated above heart level.
Treatment •Remove any jewellery •Do NOT use oils or butter on a burn •Douse effected area with cool water ASAP. •Do NOT use ice or ice cold water, as this can cause additional damage •If you have not received a tetanus booster within 5 years, get one to protect against tetanus infections
If someone receives an electrical burn, they should seek professional attention immediately. These burns often result in serious muscle breakdown, electrolyte abnormalities, and occasional kidney failure. An important thing to note about these burns is that the damage is often internal and cannot be seen from the outside.
These burns should be doused with large amounts of water to flush out the infected area. Contaminated clothing should be removed. It is also very important that you DO NOT try to neutralise the chemical burn by adding another chemical, as this could result in a chemical reaction causing greater skin damage. Many chemicals can be treated to reduce skin damage, so when in doubt it’s a good idea to call your local poison control centre or make a trip to the A&E. When working with chemicals always wear the proper protective gear to avoid burns and other injuries.
If the casualty is still in contact with the electricity STOP THE CURRENT at once by switching it off at the mains or by pulling the plug out. If this is not possible, stand on a dry surface such as a piece of wood, a newspaper or a rubber mat and knock the casualty’s limb clear of the electrical contact with an item that does not conduct electricity. Then call 999.
•Close cabinet doors and drawers when they are not in use. •Never leave young children or babies in the bath unsupervised, even for a moment •Keep medicines and chemicals out of sight and reach of children, preferably in a locked cupboard •Keep space heaters, radios and any other electrical products away from water •Never use or attempt to repair a damaged appliance; always use a qualified electrician •Always check the water temperature with a thermometer to make sure it is not too hot for your children •Do not leave any sharp objects (i.e. razors) within reach of children •Keep toothpaste with fluoride out of reach of children under 6 years of age •Remove any loose rugs and bathmats. Or, make certain bathmats have slip resistant backing •Use non-slip mats in the tub to prevent slipping •Do not leave water in the tub when it is not in use. It only takes 2-3 inches to drown
•Remove any fridge magnets that are small enough to fit in a child’s mouth and cause choking •Keep appliances far back on the counter, and make sure that cords are not dangling over the edge •Do not leave any sharp objects within reach of children •Never use or attempt to repair a damaged appliance; always consult a qualified electrician •Keep all portable and countertop appliances unplugged when not in use •Keep medicines and chemicals out of sight and reach of children, preferably in a locked cupboard •Never leave children unattended on raised surfaces like kitchen worktops •Close cabinet drawers and cupboards when not in use •Keep flammable objects such as curtains, aprons and dishtowels away from stoves •Never wear loose clothing near a stove while cooking •Never leave something cooking unattended •Heat oil slowly. Heating oil too quickly is an easy way to start a fire •Always clean appliances and surfaces after cooking to prevent grease build-up •Make sure handles on cookware are secure. •If a pan catches fire, carefully place a lid over the pan and turn off the heat. Leave the lid on until the pan is completely cool
Living Room Safety
•Make sure all rugs have a non-skid backing •Close cabinet drawers and cupboards when not in use •Use plug covers to prevent children from inserting objects into the sockets •Never run an electrical cord under a rug or carpet, or drape it over a hot surface such as a radiator or space heater •Keep fans and space heaters away from children if possible. Severe burns and cuts could be inflicted if they came into contact with these objects •Remove or shorten any cord that your child can reach. Cords from blinds or drapes can cause strangulation •Place decals on any glass doors at children’s height, so that they do not walk into the glass •Use a hearth guard for the fireplace. Always remember that a glass fire screen can cause third degree burns. •Pick up objects that are on the floor to prevent anyone tripping over them and causing an injury
•Never put objects into a plug socket. Safety caps are recommended to keep small, curious children away from sockets. •Don’t tamper with electric meters. Besides being illegal, tampering with an electric meter can cause a short circuit, leading to an electric shock, explosion, fire or shattering glass. •Stay clear of any area of any area with “High Voltage” or “Warning Keep Out” signs. These signs are put up for your own protection to let you know that it’s an unsafe area. •Remember to keep all metallic balloons or balloons with metallic string indoors. Metallic balloons can be dangerous if they come into contact with power lines. They can also cause serious power outages if released outside. •Fly kites and model airplanes in wide-open spaces. If a kite string that is damp or has metal in it comes into contact with overhead power lines, you could be seriously injured because the kite will conduct electricity down the string to you. •Inspect power tools and electric lawn mowers before each use for frayed power cords, broken plugs and cracked or broken housings. If the electrical device is damaged, stop using it immediately. •Never use electrically operated tools in the rain or wet conditions. •Unplug all power tools when not in use. Do not leave a power tool unattended for even a short time. A child can turn on the tool and cause serious injury. Water Safety
•Always test the bath before getting in •Don’t go to sleep in the bath •Don’t use hot water on an icy windshield •Don’t hold you hand under a running hot tap •Wipe up any spills immediately to prevent slipping •Insulate pipes to prevent freezing in the winter •Ponds should be covered with a strong wire mesh to prevent anyone falling in and drowning •Never leave your child alone near a swimming pool, pail of water, toilet or any other water •Never put anything electrical near water
Please let me know if i have missed any out and i will add them